Fuel Injector Leaking Into Cylinder

Image Credit: www. During this step make sure it was fuel and not coolant that was discharged. Possible fixes include: Replacement of the Cylinder 4 Fuel Injector. As the name suggests, fuel is sprayed directly into the cylinders when the air in. Acting as both a sensor and a control device, the air flow sensor sends air volume information and air temperature to the ECU, which then instructs the. if the injector leaks , at the tip, keyon , not started the injector is leaking, unplug the injector cable and if it still leaks at the tip, the injector is bad (or needs service cleaning) but of it leaks higher up?, then. The auxiliary injector (bottom) fires once per each cylinder's intake stroke. And, the port fuel injectors are not there to clean the intake valves; these injectors work to provide fuel to the engine. • Next, check the oil seal on the turbocharger for any signs of leaking. A delay device (12) for an engine fuel injector (10) having a control valve (50) for controlling high pressure actuating fluid flow to an intensifier (204) responsive to an injection command defining the duration of an injection event to increase the pressure on a volume of fuel for injection. 2004 - 2008 F150 - fuel Injector o ring leak or fuel line leak? - I have a 2007 F-150 with V8 4. past the injector body O-ring. Fuel injector does not close Fuel injector leaks Diminished Gas Mileage A fuel injector that delivers drops of gasoline instead of a mist will make for inefficient use of the gas, reducing the car's gas mileage. The air flow sensor is the point of entry for air into the fuel injection system. If an externally-leaking injector is suspected, do not start your car due to the fire hazard. replaced "o" rings at injectors (and amateur cleaning of injectors- low pressure air compressor, brake cleaner and 12 volt DC) New fuel filter new fuel pump (pro-active maintenance) engine temp sensor If I turn key to position 2 and pause (fuel pump runs) and then crank I get an immediate start, so I believe one of my injectors is leaking. The O-rings prevent diesel fuel from leaking out of the fuel system and into the crankcase. a fuel delivery problem (weak fuel pump, restricted fuel filter, dirty fuel injectors or a leaky fuel pressure regulator) than a vacuum leak. Most have a high impedance coil and uses a tapered needle (pintle) that seals into a tapered seat until energized. Check fuel injectors. Externally leaking fuel injectors will need to be replaced immediately as they pose a direct fire risk. Stale or improper fuel / fuel level. When I arrived I started the car and had atomized gasoline spraying into the engine bay. The most common type of failure in the CPI 'Spider' fuel injector system is usually fuel leaks (inside the intake manifold plenum). You can use the best fuel available, but if it isn’t delivered correctly, you won’t reap its benefits. 10 When the cylinder that is introducing air into the fuel system has been located, remove that injector and inspect the injector-to-copper sleeve seat. If a fuel leak is suspected proceed as follows: remove fuel rail retainer nuts. Each injector (there is one per cylinder) is installed with an insulator and seal at the manifold end to insulate the injector from heat and to prevent atmospheric pressure from leaking into the manifold. Simply disconnect the wiring harness form the injector and place the probes across the two contacts of the injector. Use the seals in the kit (Bosch injectorkit, import parts house, o-rings) with a small dab of grease, vaselineor lubriplate and install them where the old ones were. Apr 30, 2019 · Gasoline Leak: Fuel injector can crack or break, which will cause a gas leak. Leaking fuel injector is very easy to fix by replac. Sprinter Van Black Death is something that happens when you have a leaking fuel injector. The seal just keeps air from leaking around the injector into the manifold area; it does not contain the fuel. Recheck the injectors to make sure the o-rings are not leaking. SUGGESTION: Check remaining injectors for leaks and/or for correct pressure. The simplest single-point fuel injection systems consist of a single injector that slots into the throttle body. So, it is aimed to decrease the exhaust emissions by increasing efficiency of diesel engines. You have to remove the intake manifold, oil filler, the 3 bolts (13mm) in the hole from the oil filler (don't drop them). Lets do that first. It's possible that one of the fuel injectors is leaking. Cascade overflow valve malfunction. 8x Fuel Injector 0280158051 For Chevrolet Camaro SS 10-15 Corvette 08-13 Pontiac New other (see details). The vehicle will billow a. It was running down the block and dripping probably 3-5 drops a sec, just shy of a steady stream. If your fuel injectors aren't functioning properly, your vehicle will use more gas, won't run smoothly, and might even stop altogether. The symptoms of bad fuel injectors are going to feel almost the same as a bad fuel pump or fuel filter. Install the fuel rail ensuring that the fuel injectors insert into the holes in the intake manifold. Inspect and test the parts of the ignition system around the cylinder to determine whether or not you need to replace the coil packs, plugs, or wires. Any cracks on the exterior body of the injector can cause fuel to leak from the body rather than the flowing through the nozzle. The dealer says one way to diagnose the problem is that fuel ends up in the crankcase - which has not happened yet in this case. Note to Gleen. Removed the injector and checked it out. It costs about 2hrs. The symptoms of bad fuel injectors are going to feel almost the same as a bad fuel pump or fuel filter. Most have a high impedance coil and uses a tapered needle (pintle) that seals into a tapered seat until energized. Remember, a fuel injector is the key to proper function in the engine. Fuel injection lines transfer fuel from the fuel tank to the car engine. The injection is also Direct injection. Re-sealing your leaking in-line Zexel / Bosch PFR diesel injection pump Is your diesel engine leaking fuel from the block mounted æ’¤FR style Bosch/Zexel injection pump ? The problem is that the rubber o-rings have gotten old and brittle and no longer provide a seal. An internal leak may cause one of the. This repair is costly, as it involves more labor; the In many high-mileage cars, oil leaking into a combustion chamber from worn valve seals and oil rings can foul spark plugs causing misfire; often an engine misfires at idle, but runs better after revving up. You have most likely fixed your injector leak by now, but I just wanna add another 2 cents I keep getting A misfire on cylinder 1 The idle is kind of jumpy +/- 100 rpm and sometimes stalls out after it gets to oper temp. High pressure fuel from the fuel pump is led through a double skinned pipe to a distribution block close to the cylinder head and then through three double skinned pipes to the equally spaced fuel injectors fitted in the cylinder cover. Adding propane seems to improve the idle and drivability. Due to the rotation of An individual injector is installed for each cylinder on the intake manifold. Remove the J. Fuel pressures would be around 45PSI. Make sure that the camshaft is at the timing when both valves are closed, then put pressure into the cylinder and listen for the compression leaking out in the intake, exhaust, or into the crankcase ventilation. But when a fuel injector. Continue the procedure until the cylinder that is introducing air into the fuel system has been located. Does it sound like I have some injectors leaking fuel into the cylinders. pdf), Text File (. K High pressure g in w dra ie m de cylinder. A TSB has been published on the Ford 6. You should never sit on leaking injectors because they're a potential fire hazard. An internal leak may cause one of the. engine and match it with the proper amount of fuel. fuel is allowed to leak through the clearance between them and then drained back to fuel tank through leak of connection. However the chance of the injectors causing the leak is tiny. on the camshaft and fuel injector is partly why VW recommends that pumpe duse cars use engine oil approved. * Check for leaks. When the injectors leak a considerable amount, this will make the spark plugs very wet, which will in turn make it harder for the engine to ignite the spark plug and start the engine. Before I changed my injectors in December I would put out a cloud of white smoke that would cover the house. Take it to the dealer and have em do a complete fuel pressure test. Faulty injector leaking and ignited. Fuel injectors should not leak fuel into the intake manifold when the car is off. Leaking fuel injector is very easy to fix by replac. The leaking injectors may result in vehicles exceeding emissions standards when next driven. The plunger pressurizes the fuel in excess. Comes with a gauge. Because of this, taking care of the fuel injector is vital. The versions correspond with Fuel Injector phases. Common Bad Fuel Injector Symptoms or Signs of Bad Fuel Injector Engine vibrates – When a fuel injector is faulty, the corresponding cylinder will be affected, and thus, it won’t be Engine misfires – When a clogged injector stops your engine from getting enough fuel, it is sure to misfire while. The injectors spray fuel into the intake manifold of a diesel engine. Top 5 Reasons Oil Leaks Into a Spark Plug Hole. The reason that leaks are more prone to happen in the Audi 3. Carefully install the injector into the injector bore. A bad fuel pressure relay can also leak pressure and prevent an otherwise good fuel pump; from delivering full pressure to the injectors. com Older loop scavenged engines may have a single injector mounted centrally in the cylinder head. The LS2, LS3, LS7 intake manifolds have a different diameter injector bore cast into the manifold. leaking fuel in the presence of an ignition source, may lead to a fire. If you're looking for Fuel Injector Cleaning in the United States, call for immediate assistance 419-619-6650. With my 2005 Forester X running considerably better than before, having recently just replaced a number of under-performing components (ignition coil, fuel pressure regulator, upstream o2 sensor, pvc valve), I still suspect that I may have a leaking fuel injector. 60 Add to basket; Injector spill rail / leak off pipe set for 4 cylinder engines fitted to PSA 1. I have put new seals on both the top and bottem of the injectors, cleaned the fuel line, but I can't stop number 1 from leaking. It is really easy to nick one when installing. 1L; need advice re starter/solenoid; fuel injectors, 96 corsica; changing the coil/module 96; 94 Corsica Overheating and Spitting Water at High Speeds '95 battery drain problems; Hard to start when hot; Air has stopped. When your fuel injectors go bad or start leaking, it affects the engine’s performance and develops several leaking fuel injector symptoms. Hey everyone, I have been working on my car's fuel injectors for a few days now and it's starting too really piss me off. Tried injector cleaner, I used Tec 2000 and put it stright into fuel filter for maximum effect but didn't make any difference at all. Re-sealing your leaking in-line Zexel / Bosch PFR diesel injection pump Is your diesel engine leaking fuel from the block mounted æ’¤FR style Bosch/Zexel injection pump ? The problem is that the rubber o-rings have gotten old and brittle and no longer provide a seal. The direct fuel injection on BMW's N20 and N26 engines allowed them to produce a four-cylinder with excellent fuel mileage and plenty of power. Fuel injector o-rings prevent fuel vapors from entering the car engine. Fuel injector does not close Fuel injector leaks Diminished Gas Mileage A fuel injector that delivers drops of gasoline instead of a mist will make for inefficient use of the gas, reducing the car's gas mileage. Bad Fuel Injector Symptoms: Toyota Rav4. A graduated cylinder goes underneath the injector, but I couldn't dig up one of those for the photo shoot. fuel rail inside the cylinder head. 60 Add to basket; Injector spill rail / leak off pipe set for 4 cylinder engines fitted to PSA 1. The fuel injector cleaning or just the removal and re-install may have somehow damaged the injector’s pintles. Once the pressure on the fuel reaches a certain range, then the one-way valve will be pushed open. This solvent dissolves deposits and product buildup inside the fuel line in order to improve your vehicle’s fuel efficiency and mileage. My problem of hard starting has escalated into engine Hydrolocking from how much fuel is leaking from the injectors into the cylinders. The next time the engine is cranked and starts, the seized injector more likely will be in the full UNGOVERNED throttle position. Apply GM P/N United States 12345493, GM P/N Canada 10953488, or equivalent to the fuel injector sleeve lower sealing area. The ON-OFF-Reserve Polaris fuel selector valve 7052063 is no longer available, but the 1995 Yamaha Wave Blaster Fuel Selector valve may be a good. Possibly a few special tools? #5 cylinder is sticking/dumping fuel into cylinder and dealership wants to change them all for $1600. fuel is allowed to leak through the clearance between them and then drained back to fuel tank through leak of connection. As the name suggests, fuel is sprayed directly into the cylinders when the air in. The fuel lift pump diaphram is the most common culprit is the which perishes with age. When code P0401 is triggered, it's because the DPFE sensor found too little recirculation. This leak off tank or alarm pot can be general to all units or individually fitted to each cylinder. The moment the pressure drops, the needle valve comes back to its seat, which causes the injection. The fuel injectors are connected to the high pressure fuel rail and deliver a calibrated amount of fuel directly into the combustion chamber. You'd also need to remove the injector seat from the cylinder head, which can require a special tool if it's stuck. Aside from a weaker engine performance, you may see blue exhaust coming out of the tailpipe or more frequent engine misfires. As the title says I have coolant leaking from the fuel injector on the number 4 cylinder, only when the machine was running. Refurbish the selector valve internal seals, or replace the valve. Since the fuel system in modern diesels runs at ultra-high pressures, even a tiny crack can create a path for trouble. Leaking Externally Or Internally So, the most common cause of leaky injectors is; the failure of the O-ring, where the injector meets the fuel rail. A lot of hash, on the other hand, is a product of an ignition or lean misfire. It is advisable to clean the injectors every 25,000 to 30,000 miles to ensure that they do not get clogged. Fuel injector o-rings prevent fuel vapors from entering the car engine. Here are some of the most common symptoms of a failing fuel injector and what they might mean, so you can identify the problem and repair it. Fuel leaks around the. The injectors on and off time is controlled by the piezo actuator device which allows extreme precision during the Oregon. After about 1,5 hours the reading fell down to 15 PSI. If the seat appears to be OK, replace the injector and perform the test again. 9 psi (20 kPa / 0. After driving hard, there's a puddle of fuel on the intake next to it and the injector's moist. This results in to localized overheating and abrasive wear. Here's the catch, a leaking intake gasket will do the same thing. The dealer says one way to diagnose the problem is that fuel ends up in the crankcase - which has not happened yet in this case. as outlined on Page 10-2-20. The return fuel then passes through the external return fuel line from the cylinder head to the return fuel rail back to the fuel tank. • Injection starts: pressure decreases on top of the needle. Because the cylinder compresses the air and fuel before they ignite, compression is a vital process that allows a vehicle to operate. Excessive Fuel: When a fuel injector is stuck open, the fuel will flood out. First, injectors can leak fuel into your engine compartment from your car's fuel rail. Water pump, hoses, radiator, engine block. Low cranking speed If the engine turns over too slowly, the pump cannot generate enough fuel pressure to activate start of injection causing hard starting problems. The injectors on and off time is controlled by the piezo actuator device which allows extreme precision during the Oregon. Take the wires and hoses off the pump and your done. Fuel injector activation times are increased when engine speed falls below the threshold value. 630 RWHP is about the limit of the Stock pump with a BAP on the LS3 car, Less on an L99 car. Re-install the injector rail. Injector pump leak. O-rings for fuel injectors hold up to 750 psi and keep fuel from igniting. A leaking injector often causes a misfire on the cylinder it’s leaking into. ) Range Rover advises that all eight injectors can be removed from the manifold without being disconnected from the fuel rail (which is presumably still full of fuel. A weak or improperly working injector can do everything from send no fuel, to leak raw, non-atomized fuel into your engine. But, the problem is you can’t just see it when you look at the engine. 4 lbf ft] head, and tighten to the specified torque. Engine overheating. Dirty fuel injector Fuel Scent Leaking fuel from a faulty fuel injector will create a strong gasoline smell. The condition of the engine is determined by measuring the degree to which a cylinder with valves closed leaks air. Fuel injector - P erformance upgrade. Fuel leaks around the. This particular set had a set an injector which was leaking. This part can be used on chassis models 115, 116, 123, 124, 126, 140, 201, 210 diesel models only. 6L Duramax LB7. This hot exhaust then flows into the DPF and burns the trapped soot. 3L fuel injector can be thought of as having an “oil side” and a “fuel side”. The Sniper EFI system will be offered in a 4 and 8 injector option. The injector sprays (injects) fuel into the cylinder of the engine through a nozzle so that the internal combustion process can begin. The O-rings on injectors are designed to seal all fuel and fuel vapors from escaping into the engine compartment. You need to reset the trouble codes and swap the coil pack, wire, and plug from Cylinder 6 to another cylinder. High-pressure connectors mounted into the. 1,910 fuel injector leaking products are offered for sale by suppliers on Alibaba. If the fuel pressure in your car is too high that may cause gasoline to get into the engine oil. If the cylinder heads have internal fuel passages, coolant can. The auxiliary injector (bottom) fires once per each cylinder's intake stroke. The injectors need to be coded to the EDC, or more accurately the EDC needs to be programmed with the injector codes, so it knows the injector's characteristics. Q: Is this product made for gasoline or diesel engines? A: Lucas Fuel Treatment was designed to clean and lubricate the fuel systems of both gasoline and diesel engines. Dannysengineportal. There is also the posibility that you could have an injector wire going to ground. Apply a small amount of White Lithium grease and reinstall. Symptoms include difficulty starting, oil thinning, and odors. There really isn't anything you can do to the injector pump other than help it by keeping the filters clean, I'm afraid. Assembly work must not commence until at least 30 seconds have elapsed after turning off the engine!. Engine code: CZPA, CZPB, CZPC, DKZA, DKZC. If they fail open, they endlessly spray way too much fuel into the cylinder. A delay device (12) for an engine fuel injector (10) having a control valve (50) for controlling high pressure actuating fluid flow to an intensifier (204) responsive to an injection command defining the duration of an injection event to increase the pressure on a volume of fuel for injection. Replaces CUMMINS Tool Number3164001. If fuel leaks from the injector, replace it. Injector problems fall into two groups: mechanical and electrical. Fuel injector does not close Fuel injector leaks Diminished Gas Mileage A fuel injector that delivers drops of gasoline instead of a mist will make for inefficient use of the gas, reducing the car's gas mileage. Fuel control actuator failure. Fuel injector o-rings prevent fuel vapors from entering the car engine. You can use the best fuel available, but if it isn’t delivered correctly, you won’t reap its benefits. The suit alleges that these Ford EcoBoost engines have an inherent defect that causes coolant to leak into the cylinders, which in turn leads to corrosion, misfires, engine failure, and fires. Depending on the particular system, the fuel is sprayed into either the inlet manifold or the inlet port. fuel rail inside the cylinder head. Vacuum leaks on individual cylinders commonly occur around intake port gaskets or vacuum hose. This particular set had a set an injector which was leaking. 6L Ford engines. I removed the OEM fuel injectors sent them out for cleaning. High-pressure connectors mounted into the. Engine code: CZPA, CZPB, CZPC, DKZA, DKZC. Fuel Injector Leak-Down Test Quick-Fix The fuel injector should not make the fuel rail loose its 4) Fuel injectors can be cleaned using expenssive machines and fluids. If the problem moves you found the problem. Fuel Injection. Removal First, remove the fuel rail. If an externally-leaking injector is suspected, do not start your car due to the fire hazard. Poor injector timing affects when fuel is injected into the cylinders, and can involve more parts than just the injector itself, depending on what type of fuel system Fuel injectors can leak from quite a few place, including o-rings and seals, the top or bottom, or from the body due to excessive corrosion. In simplified terms, if air is pumped into the cylinder at 100 PSI and the gauge reads 97 PSI, then the leak down percentage is 3%. Incorrect Injection pump timing. It has an injector in the intake runner to each cylinder. Injector in Cylinder Head However, current four valve heads do incorporate the inj ector tubes and seal rings as used in the two valve head. hadn't noticed any leaking prior to this and the radiator hadn't been loosing any. move a piece of cardboard over the high pressure fuel lines and check for fuel spray onto the cardboard. Over time, debris or fuel contaminants can block tiny fuel injector orifices. riceweightloss. An alternative design is the unit injection system in which a high pressure pump is incorporated into each injector. You either won't get fuel/air into the cylinder properly or you won't get good compression and/or exhaust. if you pressure leaks down,even minutely. China 55245385 Diesel Injector Fuel Return Overflow Leak-off Pipe for Opel FIAT Ford Vauxhall, Find details about China 5817304, 93184177 from 55245385 Diesel Injector Fuel Return Overflow Leak-off Pipe for Opel FIAT Ford Vauxhall - Shijiazhuang Standards Rubber Products Trading Co. This is important because no fuel from any gas station is 100% pure. If a damaged injector is the cause of the leak, the gasoline will both be visible on the injector and cause a smell. P0204 — ECM-2C3B — Injector cyl 4 — Signal missing Oh i just want to say if your new to checking out codes on the diagnostic unit be well aware of zeros in. The fuel injector cleaning or just the removal and re-install may have somehow damaged the injector’s pintles. Place the injector tube installer J 5286-4 in the. Vacuum leaks at throttle body, the intake manifold or vacuum hose connections. Coolant Leaking Into Cylinder Diagnosis 1. The high pressure fuel pump operates on the principle of a two-stroke engine. If you begin to experience engine misfires, leaks, poor fuel mileage, rough idling, and engine stalling, your injectors might need replacing. FUEL INJECTOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION 2003-2007 CUMMINS 5. In comparison, the Duramax also uses a two-stage fuel pump, but rather than utilizing a diaphragm-type pump for lift, a pair of spur gears is used to bring. It must be noted that the needle should fall fully into the seat. IF things are not assembled perfectly, then this deformation can produce a leak in the head gasket and coolant can then move into the cylinders. Rather than sitting in a fuel rail on the intake manifold, the injectors sit in the cylinder head above the spark plugs. If you notice any fuel odor around your car, the possibility of a leaking fuel injector should be considered. Signs of Leaking Fuel Injectors. External fuel leaks of injector body. Plug the fuel return line fitting with a suitable tool (CH-50377-A). Re-sealing your leaking in-line Zexel / Bosch PFR diesel injection pump Is your diesel engine leaking fuel from the block mounted æ’¤FR style Bosch/Zexel injection pump ? The problem is that the rubber o-rings have gotten old and brittle and no longer provide a seal. Normally, pressure is maintained in the fuel system after engine shutdown. 480 x 360 jpeg 16 КБ. In present diesel engines, fuel injection systems have designed to obtain higher injection pressure. Seal for BKS & CASA engines is VW # 059130519. This cleaner will be poured into a flushing cylinder that helps pressurize the contents. Understanding how this system works can really help in the diagnosis of a failed injector. If your new injectors came without seals, purchase new injector seals separately rather than reusing the old ones. redex or use premium fuel to keep them clean? or shall i get engine carbon cleaned via one of these mobile carbon cleaning companies? Crank Engine with no Injectors in to clear any small carbon particles out of Cylinders before fitting Injectors back into Head. 0L injector is 1. If fuel leaks from the injector, replace it. You can use the best fuel available, but if it isn’t delivered correctly, you won’t reap its benefits. Both top feed and side fuel injectors make use of O-rings to seal between the fuel injector and fuel rail. thoroughly utilize the air charge d. See your John Deere Dealer. As the name suggests, fuel is sprayed directly into the cylinders when the air in. Then the leaking injector leaks into cylinder #1 allowing the fuel pressure to bleed off and flood it when the engine is turned off. The fuel injector is also timed with the intake valve opening, giving the ultimate control and is the most efficient way to deliver fuel into your engine. Fuel injectors should not leak fuel into the intake manifold when the car is off. Use caution while guiding the injectors into their holes, to avoid damaging the pintle caps. Here are some of the most common symptoms of a failing fuel injector and what they might mean, so you can identify the problem and repair it. Remember, the injectors are spraying fuel into your engine and if they are stuck in the open position, they will flood the engine with gasoline which could catch on fire. A vacuum leak will cause misfire in the cylinder closest to the source of the leak. I was told that I needed all new fuel injector lines and injectors. I ended up making six stops before I found the right o-ring, some stores would take 2 to 5 days to order the proper fuel injector o-ring kit, some stores only had generic o-ring variety packs, which either obviously did not have the correct size or were expensive. After pulling fuel from a vented fuel tank, the fuel is delivered through a barrel valve that controls the amount of fuel with the position of the air valve. The water in the fuel can cause internal components to rust. We design and manufacture an array of injector styles with matching flow rates, spray. The O-rings prevent diesel fuel from leaking out of the fuel system and into the crankcase. It is very rare for the injector to leak externally. The vehicle will billow a. The fuel injector cleaning or just the removal and re-install may have somehow damaged the injector’s pintles. Place the outlet nozzle or rubber hose into a graduated cylinder from the J-45873 Fuel Return Volume Test Kit. When I arrived I started the car and had atomized gasoline spraying into the engine bay. Here are some of the most common symptoms of a failing fuel injector and what they might mean, so you can identify the problem and repair it. You can use the best fuel available, but if it isn’t delivered correctly, you won’t reap its benefits. Fuel injector o-rings prevent fuel vapors from entering the car engine. The previously failing injector had obviously now completely failed and was stuck open; pouring fuel into the cylinder. Shut the car off immediately if a leak is present. The location of the fuel injectors make their harnesses and connectors to be susceptible to corrosion and water intrusion. They are usually located on the intake manifold and are connected to one another with a fuel rail. - Carbon build up on valves and injectors (common in engines with direct injection) - Vacuum leaks. Fuel control actuator failure. Any leak is loss of compression in cylinder. A clogged injector could lead to a lower flow rate, liquid fuel dripping into the combustion chamber, or the injector failing to inject fuel entirely. Direct fuel injectors are more sensitive to restrictions because of the precise amount of fuel they inject into On four-cylinder engines, the No. The direct fuel injection on BMW's N20 and N26 engines allowed them to produce a four-cylinder with excellent fuel mileage and plenty of power. Electronically controlled fuel injection has replaced the carburettor and manifold set-up that was so popular on older make automobiles. Balance rates are high (positive), indicating fuel is being added to the cylinder because the computer thinks the fuel injector is not flowing enough. Remove the upper and lower O-ring seals on the injectors. Fuel can ignite and cause serious injuries or death. I am really in need of some advice or ideas from the members as it is really getting frustrating now, I will. I think what a mechanic might do at this point is remove the injectors and pressurize the fuel rail and use a gadget to pulse each of the injectors and inspect the spray pattern. There should be no external leak from a fuel injector. A low pressure direct injection transparent optical engine bench was developed, and the in-cylinder mixture formation process was filmed. If a loose injector condition exists long enough, the copper seal at the tip of the injector that seals it to the cylinder head and the rubber seals that seal off the fuel supply ports will eventually burn and fail. If your fuel additive does not contain any (or enough) PEA, it likely won’t do anything for your fuel injectors. com, of which other auto engine parts accounts for 6%, injector There are 312 suppliers who sells fuel injector leaking on Alibaba. Repair or replacement of any wiring issues (damaged or broken wires). 2 died; 1996 3. It’s possible that the fuel leakage is coming from an injector leak-off hose, but removing the cylinder-head cover (quite easy to do) should allow you to accurately identify the source of the leak. Only an injector issue will dump fuel into a cylinder or a head issue [you do not seem to be running hot enough to unseat the heads] so I would go with injectors. On port injection, one injector on one side will only give you lean codes for that side. The rail has small adjustable arms for each of the 6 injectors. LTFT fuel trim readings that are trending high might also be the result of a slight ignition misfire that is not bad enough yet to set a misfire code but is bad enough to cause a drop in fuel economy. You can also save and just have nozzles put on instead of the hole injectors. Two injectors failed the leak-down test which simply means they leaked fuel into the cylinder while the car was off. com Older loop scavenged engines may have a single injector mounted centrally in the cylinder head. The more fuel that the engine is demanding, the longer the valves controlling the mist stay open, which is defined as "pulse width. The direct fuel injection on BMW's N20 and N26 engines allowed them to produce a four-cylinder with excellent fuel mileage and plenty of power. Fuel enters the injector through an opening on the side of the injector body, which is delivered by the fuel pump and surrounds the injector through passages in the cylinder head. • Discharge leaking fuel at the pump piston. If you do plan on doing that, you will also need a new gasket set (base and Cylinder Head), plus you may then also need to re-hone the Cylinder wall and that would possible mean new rings too. Fuel injector does not close Fuel injector leaks Diminished Gas Mileage A fuel injector that delivers drops of gasoline instead of a mist will make for inefficient use of the gas, reducing the car's gas mileage. Here you need to be careful cause you can cause other injector to crack and make unnecessary expense. In addition all hose fittings (hose tails, tees, pick-up tubes etc. Yanmar 4JH2E freeze plug leaks; Polyflex engine mounts; Reading Oil Dipstick 4JH2E and probably others; 2GM wonbt rev out amp smokes; YSM12 runaway; FUEL INJECTOR LEAK AT OUTSIDE BASE; Injector Removal Yanmar 3GM; YSB8 Wonbt start Compression leak down handstart; Yanmar KM4a gearbox ratio; Prop size; YSM 8 Shuts off when warm ideling. Fuel leaks around the. The injectors are vertically mounted into a bored hole in the top of the cylinder head. Fuel leaks around the. Could get unburned fuel out exhaust. An injector thus consists of the main body which can be attached to the cylinder head securely – a fuel inlet for the supply of diesel and a nozzle or tip which atomises the fuel into a spray inside the engine. The engine uses the L-type sequential fuel injection (SFI) and the twelve-hole fuel injectors. Injector spill common rail/leak connector for DELPHI Injectors. If you notice any fuel odor around your car, the possibility of a leaking fuel injector should be considered. Signs of Leaking Fuel Injectors. Dannysengineportal. Re: Diesel fuel leaking into engine oil again in reply to Richard Wegner, 01-24-2009 22:19:09 The other guys are right, the front seal in the injection pump will be leaking. 38 oz] If the injector leakage is excessive during cranking and the engine will notstart, check the. Burning off that excess fuel would lead to the black. Testing the fuel injectors on your Ford F 150 with a 4. If an externally-leaking injector is suspected, do not start your car due to the fire hazard. There should be no external leak from a fuel injector. The previously failing injector had obviously now completely failed and was stuck open; pouring fuel into the cylinder. • The fuel injector is an electronically controlled valve that is supplied with pressurized fuel by the fuel pump and when energized atomizes the fuel into a fine mist so that it can burn easily in the vehicle's engine. It is very rare for the injector to leak externally. Properly working fuel injectors spray precisely the amount of fuel mixture needed into your engine's cylinder to deliver the amount of power required, for idling, acceleration, and cruising. (if it is injectors) I was told my old power puck could have cracked mine. Fuel injector o-rings prevent fuel vapors from entering the car engine. When the plunger rises, it opens a valve and the injector sends fuel through the spray tip and into either the intake manifold, just upstream of the intake valve, or directly into the cylinder. The fuel injector is also timed with the intake valve opening, giving the ultimate control and is the most efficient way to deliver fuel into your engine. Understanding how this system works can really help in the diagnosis of a failed injector. Fuel injectors should not leak fuel into the intake manifold when the car is off. I looked into getting a spare set of injectors , found that injectors rebuild from Found #5 cylinder injector free lowing & leaking very profusely. If the fuel pressure in your car is too high that may cause gasoline to get into the engine oil. Re-sealing your leaking in-line Zexel / Bosch PFR diesel injection pump Is your diesel engine leaking fuel from the block mounted æ’¤FR style Bosch/Zexel injection pump ? The problem is that the rubber o-rings have gotten old and brittle and no longer provide a seal. The balance rates of an injector are adjustments of fuel to the injector made by the ECU, adjustments made from fluctuations of the crankshaft detected by the crankshaft position sensor. But high HC emissions can also be caused by burned exhaust valves (check compression), lean misfire (check for vacuum leaks, low fuel pressure or dirty injectors), or rich fuel conditions (excessive fuel pressure, leaky injectors or a dead O2 sensor). The O-rings on injectors are designed to seal all fuel and fuel vapors from escaping into the engine compartment. I thought this would be an easy fix, I just needed to get a new o-ring of the proper size. Install the fuel injector sleeve onto the J 45910. The most common result of cracks in the 6. Each fuel injector sprays fuel into the engine either through the air intake (petrol engines only) or directly into the combustion chamber. When the plunger rises, it opens a valve and the injector sends fuel through the spray tip and into either the intake manifold, just upstream of the intake valve, or directly into the cylinder. Fuel injectors are devices that deliver fuel into an engine's combustion chambers to be burned. One problem is an excessively high exhaust temperature,. You have to actually take off the cover, and look at the fuel injector to see if it is leaking into the cylinder. Tried injector cleaner, I used Tec 2000 and put it stright into fuel filter for maximum effect but didn't make any difference at all. Electronically controlled fuel injection has replaced the carburetor and manifold setup that was so popular on older make automobiles. 1 Installing the fuel injection nozzles Replace: Gasket Tightening torque: 49. One last note on fuel injectors. The fuel injector is also timed with the intake valve opening, giving the ultimate control and is the most efficient way to deliver fuel into your engine. Injector pump – Injector pump shaft seals have been known to fail. Engine code: CZPA, CZPB, CZPC, DKZA, DKZC. Automotive fuel injectors require a precise degree of fuel pressure to deliver an exact measure of fuel in a precisely sprayed pattern to the combustion chamber of each cylinder. Poor or broken electrical connections in the connector or harness. Use caution while guiding the injectors into their holes, to avoid damaging the pintle caps. It is vital that you observe the tightening torque: , ,. Fuel leaks around the. A delay device (12) for an engine fuel injector (10) having a control valve (50) for controlling high pressure actuating fluid flow to an intensifier (204) responsive to an injection command defining the duration of an injection event to increase the pressure on a volume of fuel for injection. Set the fuel hose into a container to avoid fuel spills. It was running down the block and dripping probably 3-5 drops a sec, just shy of a steady stream. Here are some of the most common symptoms of a failing fuel injector and what they might mean, so you can identify the problem and repair it. It is very rare for the injector to leak externally. A cylinder balance test indicates low power contribution from cylinders 1 and 5. Fuel injector o-rings prevent fuel vapors from entering the car engine. Click to expand They will leak fuel on the rail side of the injector, but where it goes into the head it will suck air. Here's the catch, a leaking intake gasket will do the same thing. Why are fuel injector issues such as clogging or leaking so common? Well, to put it simply – Fuel injectors have the important job of dispersing fuel into the engine at the exact angle and quantity needed for the engine to operate optimally. Electric Fuel Pump – A 12-volthigh-pressure fuel pump, (located in the fuel tank) supplies fuel under pressure to the fuel rail on the intake manifold. I already knew what I was getting into, because I had to pull off the fuel rail when I replaced my cams. The upper seal is where the fuel injector attaches to the fuel rail. Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector. If a high pressure connection is leaking shut the engine off and loosen the connection than tighten it to specification. You can use the best fuel available, but if it isn’t delivered correctly, you won’t reap its benefits. Take the wires and hoses off the pump and your done. Removed the injector and checked it out. See your John Deere Dealer. You can use something like this:. I am really in need of some advice or ideas from the members as it is really getting frustrating now, I will. The fuel injector is also timed with the intake valve opening, giving the ultimate control and is the most efficient way to deliver fuel into your engine. Fuel injectors should not leak fuel into the intake manifold when the car is off. Bfox111, I think you will have to pull the valve covers like you were planning. Common Rail Diesel Fuel Systems Fuel leak back (return) portOperation of fuel injectors Fuel is now injected into the 3 00 /2 2 er ay rm he A. Dirty fuel injector Fuel Scent Leaking fuel from a faulty fuel injector will create a strong gasoline smell. What are Leaky Fuel Injectors? Due to the way the N54 fuel injectors are positioned, if they leak, drips of gas will land on the spark plugs. This particular set had a set an injector which was leaking. Any cracks on the exterior body of the injector can cause fuel to leak from the body rather than the flowing through the nozzle. High-pressure connectors mounted into the. Fuel Injection High fuel injection pressures are needed: Injection pressure may exceed 25,000 psi in some applications This is needed to overcome high internal cylinder pressures Use only OEM methods when identifying the source of high pressure fuel leaks. Why do injectors need cleaning? Where do the deposits that clog injectors come from? repairable and will need to be replaced. There should be no external leak from a fuel injector. I already knew what I was getting into, because I had to pull off the fuel rail when I replaced my cams. Re-sealing your leaking in-line Zexel / Bosch PFR diesel injection pump Is your diesel engine leaking fuel from the block mounted æ’¤FR style Bosch/Zexel injection pump ? The problem is that the rubber o-rings have gotten old and brittle and no longer provide a seal. I was told that I needed all new fuel injector lines and injectors. fuel droplets injected into a diesel engine cylinder must have adequate penetration to _. That allows them to spray their fuel directly into the combustion chamber. 0L injectors. It hydro-locked the pistonAnd bent. If you notice any fuel odor around your car, the possibility of a leaking fuel injector should be considered. Note that a leaking injector will only affect its host cylinder; if there are multiple or random cylinder misfires, the problem probably lies in the ignition system. VACUUM LEAK. No engine Rpm signal from ckp (may set fault code P0335) No camshaft sensor signal (cylinder phasing error, may set fault code P0341) Fuel Injectors faulty (may set P0200 or related fault code) Fuel injector pipes incorrectly fitted. Fuel Injector Leak-Down Test Quick-Fix The fuel injector should not make the fuel rail loose its 4) Fuel injectors can be cleaned using expenssive machines and fluids. I too beleive that your leaks are coming from the seals. Top-feed fuel injectors are subdivided into three: regular, hose-end, and direct. Fuel injector does not close Fuel injector leaks Diminished Gas Mileage A fuel injector that delivers drops of gasoline instead of a mist will make for inefficient use of the gas, reducing the car's gas mileage. Many regular grades of gasoline do not contain; adequate levels of detergent to keep the injectors clean. Fuel injector activation times are increased when engine speed falls below the threshold value. They are usually located on the intake manifold and are connected to one another with a fuel rail. I would take the car for a run of about twenty miles to see what effect that has. If you have had an injector that has been leaking heavily it can be a good idea to remove the coils and plugs to drain the combustion area of the extra fuel. To measure it you will need a suitable pressure gauge which can read up to 60 PSI (4 Bar) as a minimum. Injector oil inlet adaptor 2. Route the fuel injector wiring harness along the top of the fuel rail and connect the harness plugs to the injectors. 8, denotes the cylinder in which the fault has occurred so a code of. Each time the fuel injector opens, fuel sprays into the cylinder. INJECTOR REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION PROCEDURE 1. O-rings for fuel injectors hold up to 750 psi and keep fuel from igniting. A brand-new fuel injector from AutoZone provides efficient emissions and exceptional performance, so you can rest assured that your engine is receiving the right amount of gas when you make this simple upgrade. There should be no external leak from a fuel injector. The cylinder can miss a stroke, causing immediate engine power loss and a noticeable sound effect. The versions correspond with Fuel Injector phases. VACUUM LEAK. Bosch Top Feed Injectors Cleaned. a fuel delivery problem (weak fuel pump, restricted fuel filter, dirty fuel injectors or a leaky fuel pressure regulator) than a vacuum leak. Click to expand They will leak fuel on the rail side of the injector, but where it goes into the head it will suck air. The most common result of cracks in the 6. Fuel can ignite and cause serious injuries or death. Fuel goes in the top and exits out a single hole in the bottom. You have to actually take off the cover, and look at the fuel injector to see if it is leaking into the cylinder. Replace any injectors on the cylinders that spray fuel. A simple explanation is: engine oil is pressurized up to 4,000 psi and then used to act on a piston in the injector to push the fuel into the cylinder at the injection pressure of 25,000 psi. Fuel enters the injector through an opening on the side of the injector body, which is delivered by the fuel pump and surrounds the injector through passages in the cylinder head. You can use the best fuel available, but if it isn’t delivered correctly, you won’t reap its benefits. An injector may also leak, which would cause liquid fuel to enter the combustion chamber when the injector is supposed to be closed. This CAPS pump was a computer controlled injection pump, with individual fuel lines to each injector. Through this passage a fuel communication is established where the fuel is delivered into the plunger cylinder via control valve. Changed out the Spark plugs They Oil & all filters changed. High pressure system loss of pressure. I have a scanner and on the misfire screen I do have misfires on cylinder Nos. It is important to identify them and take care of the problem as quick as possible. The injector sleeve is often. External fuel leaks of injector body. past the injector body O-ring. com, of which other auto engine parts accounts for 6%, injector There are 312 suppliers who sells fuel injector leaking on Alibaba. 60 Add to basket; Injector spill rail / leak off pipe set for 4 cylinder engines fitted to PSA 1. 2004 - 2008 F150 - fuel Injector o ring leak or fuel line leak? - I have a 2007 F-150 with V8 4. Fuel injectors are nothing but electronically operated solenoids, but because they work under very high pressures, it is almost inevitable that some of their internal components will start leaking at some point. Referring to the Pump diagram, I THINK he is saying that the little "titty" on shaft #79 stabs into a hole on lever #78. NOTE: PLEASE BE VERY CAREFUL NOT TO LET ANYTHING FALL INTO THE CYLINDERS THROUGH THE INJECTOR PORTS WHILE THEY ARE OPEN. Fuel can enter a cylinder when your car's engine is off and cause it to hydro-lock. You must do this to each cylinder, one at a time. 50 Add to basket. Stop the engine immediately if a fuel leak is detected. Location C - within injector body. Re-sealing your leaking in-line Zexel / Bosch PFR diesel injection pump Is your diesel engine leaking fuel from the block mounted æ’¤FR style Bosch/Zexel injection pump ? The problem is that the rubber o-rings have gotten old and brittle and no longer provide a seal. That allows them to spray their fuel directly into the combustion chamber. The fuel feedback control system will compensate for the leaning effect once it is in closed loop, but it can't correct the underlying condition that is causing the problem. fuel supplied by each unit injector on a two stroke/cycle single acting diesel engine is directed into each cylinder at a very high pressure through the _____. The oxygen sensor will report to the computer if the air/fuel mixture is too Rich or too Lean. If fuel leaks from the injector, replace it. The previously failing injector had obviously now completely failed and was stuck open; pouring fuel into the cylinder. The injection pump is located on the left hand side of the engine and is driven from the timing gears. 1'm running a 340 lph fuel pump on Digifant 1, although I do have new o-rings and injector cups. 6 Relief Valve. If the problem persists, more tests need to be done to diagnose the problem, see "Possible Causes". You can use the best fuel available, but if it isn’t delivered correctly, you won’t reap its benefits. A leaking injector often causes a misfire on the cylinder it’s leaking into. You want to keep your engine running as smooth and efficient as possible, so knowing these 5 bad fuel injector symptoms will help you out. The next time the engine is cranked and starts, the seized injector more likely will be in the full UNGOVERNED throttle position. Possible fixes include: Replacement of the Cylinder 4 Fuel Injector. A typical fuel injector is shown in Figure , It can be seen to be two basic parts, the nozzle and the nozzle holder or body. In present diesel engines, fuel injection systems have designed to obtain higher injection pressure. This CAPS pump was a computer controlled injection pump, with individual fuel lines to each injector. Fuel injector leaking. When this happens, fuel leaks past the sealing mechanism when the injector is closed. That allows them to spray their fuel directly into the combustion chamber. into a flare on the lower side of the cylinder head to. The owner had also reported a marked increase in the engine oil level, possibly as a result of contamination from diesel fuel leaking via the high pressure circuit, past the injector, into the combustion chamber and past the piston rings into the sump pan. On port injection, one injector on one side will only give you lean codes for that side. The direct fuel injection on BMW's N20 and N26 engines allowed them to produce a four-cylinder with excellent fuel mileage and plenty of power. The pressure at which the injector operates can be adjusted by. Cummins said 3 of the 6 injectors are failing and leaking air from the combustion chamber. The spray pattern of the injector nozzle is critical and determines the distribution of fuel into the combustion chamber. P0204 — ECM-2C3B — Injector cyl 4 — Signal missing Oh i just want to say if your new to checking out codes on the diagnostic unit be well aware of zeros in. During this time the computer commands the fuel injectors to inject fuel after the cylinder has fired, forcing raw fuel into the DOC (Diesel Oxidizing Catalyst) where it is burned to elevate the temperature of the exhaust. Monitor oil level. Repeat for all eight injectors. This article focuses on fuel injection in reciprocating piston and rotary piston engines. The leaking fuel does not appear when the engine is merely idling, only once it has been driven 3. Known as an injector’s balance rate this can be seen with a scan tool. Or maybe some kind of 4-cylinder engine fuel rail could be used as a starting point. that can leak combustion gasses. High pressure fuel injection pump faulty. Replaced filter, removed fuel inlet line, installed priming pump and filled fuel filter. Methods and systems are provided for performing mitigating actions in response to detecting a fuel injector leak. If the O-ring fitted to the injector is the problem; then replacing this O-ring will usually fix the leak. 25oz Bottle - One bottle treats up to 25 gallons of fuel. O-rings for fuel injectors hold up to 750 psi and keep fuel from igniting. Because of this pressure, a leaking injector would discharge fuel to its cylinder until the pressure was near zero. This is important because no fuel from any gas station is 100% pure. Testing of fuel injector is carried out as follows. Injection system, overview of fitting locations engines 2,0 EA888 gen III BZ. Removed the injector and checked it out. Fuel cap vent dirty. The fuel pressure at this time is only 50-60 psi, not the high pressure while the car running. Here are the steps to take in bleeding air from a diesel fuel system: 1. The reason that leaks are more prone to happen in the Audi 3. There should be no external leak from a fuel injector. Here are some tips to help ensure a successful installation. a fuel-injection system needs a return line to go back to the gas can- I mean, fuel. due to the resonance condition, injector line number 2 could develop small cracks which could lead to fuel leakage. Low cranking speed If the engine turns over too slowly, the pump cannot generate enough fuel pressure to activate start of injection causing hard starting problems. Fuel injectors should not leak fuel into the intake manifold when the car is off. Both gauges seem to indicate everything is working properly. Repeat for all eight injectors. Depending on the particular system, the fuel is sprayed into either the inlet manifold or the inlet port. Whether the injector timing is accurate or not shouldn't interfere with the high pressure delivery of fuel to the injector, and with the pipe loose the fuel should squirt out wholesale. The fuel is not leaking from any of the hoses, nozzles, pipes, clips etc 4. This will wet the seals, preventing leaks. Some of the injectors slipped right into the fuel rail side and others went in a lot tighter. When code P0401 is triggered, it's because the DPFE sensor found too little recirculation. Dirty injectors can also restrict fuel delivery and cause a lean fuel condition. The fuel injectors are connected to the high pressure fuel rail and deliver a calibrated amount of fuel directly into the combustion chamber. Smell for gas. Plug the fuel return line fitting with a suitable tool (CH-50377-A). You can use the best fuel available, but if it isn’t delivered correctly, you won’t reap its benefits. High carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are a telltale sign of a rich fuel mixture. com Older loop scavenged engines may have a single injector mounted centrally in the cylinder head. As a practical matter, fuel injectors In practice, fuel injectors form the termination of the fuel system at each cylinder. For a standard vehicle with any Lucas Fuel Injection system the pressure should be 36-38 PSI (2. Measuring the diesel fuel return quantity of Bosch solenoid valve injectors. The moment the pressure drops, the needle valve comes back to its seat, which causes the injection. The Dominator ECU can run up to 24 high or low impedance injectors. Porous cylinder block or head casting: Coolant can pass into the crank case via holes in. This can be seen in The Cause Apparently the injectors start leaking in the throttle body and let unmetered fuel. Recent designs for this component have provided a more positive means to seal the shaft against leakage; however, unlike most fuel injectors, there is no fuel screen in the inlet side of the unit. 6 Relief Valve. Fuel injector does not close Fuel injector leaks Diminished Gas Mileage A fuel injector that delivers drops of gasoline instead of a mist will make for inefficient use of the gas, reducing the car's gas mileage. Direct injection deposits fuel directly into each cylinder instead of the intake manifold. I have tightened both to what feels like 22 lbs torque, but they. Check the Fuel System for Leaks. Pull it off, inspect the diaphragm and manually operate it on the bench to ensure the diaphragm isn't leaking. Balance rates are high (positive), indicating fuel is being added to the cylinder because the computer thinks the fuel injector is not flowing enough. 0L V-8 are a plug & play replacement that will solve your injector leaks, poor spray pattern, clogged tips and/or leaking o-rings for less than the cost of 2 aftermarket oem injectors from your local auto parts store!. Because the exhaust valve is in the centre of the cylinder head on modern uniflow scavenged engines the fuel valves (2 or 3) are arranged around the periphery of the head. Fuel Level Sensor Circ Range. 8, denotes the cylinder in which the fault has occurred so a code of. Put a little high temp anti seize lube on the threads. It fires into the head as the intake valve is opened so the fuel air mix gets sucked into the engine. The MFI pump is fed by a high-pressure fuel pump further upstream, while injectors on each cylinder deliver the fuel to the combustion chamber in an atomized spray. Re-sealing your leaking in-line Zexel / Bosch PFR diesel injection pump Is your diesel engine leaking fuel from the block mounted æ’¤FR style Bosch/Zexel injection pump ? The problem is that the rubber o-rings have gotten old and brittle and no longer provide a seal. Install the fuel injector sleeve with J 45910 into the cylinder head. Insert the pilot J 5286-5 through the small. The recall notice, lodged with the Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC), says the faulty injectors "may leak fuel into the engine when the vehicle is turned off for an extended period of time". 0 kgf m) Insert the fuel injection nozzles into the cylinder [36. Both A and B Technician A says the fuel rail delivers fuel to the fuel injectors. Though some fuel injector issues may need an inspection of a professional mechanic, others can be diagnosed by DIY methods with some simple. Rather than sitting in a fuel rail on the intake manifold, the injectors sit in the cylinder head above the spark plugs. Injection begins soon after the poppet valve closes and the SOLUTION: Replace Injector. The exhaust system consists of the four-into-one (4-1) stainless steel headers, stainless steel exhaust pipes and catalytic converters for both left and right cylinder banks. This can be caused from the plunger getting gummed up and not closing correctly, which means it's not cutting off the flow of fuel correctly. The Dominator ECU can run up to 24 high or low impedance injectors. EVAP Emission Contr. If an externally-leaking injector is suspected, do not start your car due to the fire hazard.